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Malocclusions lngual considered by the WHO as the third event by its prevalence and they represent a public health problem. Genetic and environmental risk factors such as abnormal oral habits are of vital importance to consider its frequency, duration and intensity in order to avoid creating specific changes in the occlusion.

Malos Hábitos Oralesal by Alejandro Barrenechea on Prezi

To determine the prevalence of malocclusions and its association with risk factors, such as pernicious oral habits in a 2 to year-old child population who requested dental lingjal in the Venustiano Carranza peripheral clinic of the UNAM.

A cross-sectional study was conducted in children. The epidemiologic information was recollected in one phase that comprised two stages to identify the presence of pernicious oral habits and diagnose the type of malocclusion. The statistical package SPSS 15 was used.

The prevalence of pernicious oral habits was The largest number of cases presented at age 4 and in the 6 to 11 years of age during the mixed dentition. Malocclusions were present in both genders with no significant difference. The habit with the highest prevalence was lingual interposition In regard to malocclusions, the most prevalent was open bite Child population presents greater susceptibility to develop malocclusions during growth so preventive measures should be adopted during this stage.

En cuanto a las maloclusiones: The World Health Organization considers malocclusions as a variable public health problem that ranks third in prevalence of oral anomalies associated with different risk factors such as genetic and environmental.

Among the environmental risk factors is the presence of pernicious oral habits which may influence the development of a malocclusion depending on their frequency, duration and intensity during growth and development, causing interposicioj changes in the occlusion and in bone and facial tissues.

Occlusal normal patterns for the first dentition according to the terminal position of the primary second molars are the terminal plane flush and the mesial step relationship, which lead to an Angle molar class I in the permanent dentition.

The severe mesial and distal steps are considered malocclusion precursors for the second dentition. Iinterposicion and II and III is of vital importance as guidelines during the diagnosis of any habit- associated malocclusion.

Identification of any of the abovementioned conditions and recognition of risk factors could prevent major anomalies; the problem is that, while it is true that a large number preventive studies has been published, these generally focus in the dental caries problem in preschool and school age children in contrast to those related with the prevention of oral habits. Risk factors such as thumb sucking for extended periods of time, may cause specific abnormal effects on occlusion and bone development 12 and although breastfeeding has linguwl considered greatly beneficial, it has also been associated with malocclusions such as open bite when maintained for too long.

Malocclusion prevalence studies in children have established that oral habits can affect tooth position and arch shape, interfering with normal growth and orofacial musculature function. It was also determined that there was an association between thumb sucking habit and malocclusion.

Considerable problems could be avoided if pediatricians, general dental practitioners, lignual dentists and orthodontists when examining year-old children, identified the presence of oral habits in order to prevent and intercept them which would avoid physical and psychological repercussions during puberty and adolescence. Epidemiologic studies provide a great amount of information about the profile of malocclusions associated with different variables.

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Effects on the masticatory muscles were observed which caused TMJ noises and palpation interposicjon. In a study designed to identify and prioritize the possible relationship between atypical swallowing, open bite, diction and school performance by sex and interposiciin in children from preschool through sixth grade, it inyerposicion determined that children between 7 and 8 years of age had more language problems and that girls presented atypical swallowing that caused open bites.

The abovementioned information highlights the importance of identifying clinical characteristics of oral habits associated with the development of some of the malocclusions that are more frequently present in the child population, in order to prevent, intercept or correct them during growth and development.

A cross-sectional study was performed on children of both genders, ages between 2 and 15 years who attended the Venustiano Carranza peripheral clinic of the Dental School of the National Autonomous University of Mexico for dental care and whose parents previously signed a consent form to participate in this study.

The epidemiologic information was obtained with the informed consent of the parents or guardians. The survey contained a section with direct questions for the children in a personal way, and distraight and another section addressed to parents in order to identify the presence of oral habits. Finally, epidemiologic variables such as mouth breathing, lip competence, incompetence, or biting; onychophagia and presence of calluses caused by thumb sucking were obtained.

The child was asked to swallow saliva to assess if the swallowing was atypical or not and if it there was tongue thrust. Oral habits were also assessed by means of the information provided by the parents. In cases with crossbite a milimetrical rule and lnterposicion fine-tipped caliper were used to determine the transverse dimension or the maxillary compression. This was measured from the central fossa of the upper right first molar to the fossa of the upper left molar.

In the lower arch, it was determined from the distal cusp of the right molar to the left molar as the parameters described by Korkhaus. For permanent teeth, malocclusion was determined by the position of the upper first molar with respect to the lower first molar as Class I, II div. In the present study children from 2 to 15 years of age participated. The average lingaul was 8 years presenting a minimum age of 2 and a maximum of 15 Figure 1. With regard to the prevalence of pernicious oral habits, it was determined that it was To analyze the frequency by age and gender it was observed that the prevalence of oral habits is higher in males than in females and more frequent at the age of 4 and from 6 to eleven years old, when they are in the mixed dentition.

For females it was also noted that in age groups the largest number of cases were present Table I.

Total percentage of children by gender. Prevalence of pernicious oral habits. Prevalence of oral habits by age and gender. The most prevalent pernicious oral habits were tongue interposiciob with a To a lesser proportion inadequate posture was There were no cases of pacifier use or bruxism in the study sample Figure 3.

deglución lingual

Prevalence of pernicious oral habits. A Lingual thrust, frontal and lateral view B Lip suction C Thumb sucking E Mouth breathing When analyzing the percentage distribution by gender, it intrposicion noted that, for females as well as for males, lingual interposition was the most prevalent since more than half of the children interposifion it; lip suction and onychophagia occupied second and third place respectively Table II. The most prevalent malocclusion were open bite interpsoicion a Percentile distribution of the prevalence of oral habits by gender.

C Overjet, lteral and occlusal view 7. D Edge to edge bite. In regard to the presence of malocclusions in relation to gender, the largest proportion was open bite with a In primary dentition, the highest prevalence was the mesial terminal plane with In the permanent dentition class I molar was more prevalent with Posterior crossbite was observed in the Prevalence of terminal planes.

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A Mesial step, Ljngual Exaggerated mesial step; 4. C Flush terminal plane; 8. D Distal step; 2. Angle molar class prevalence. A Class I; male B Molar class II; male C Molar class III; A mouth-breathing association with posterior crossbite and Angle Class II was found and 0. The standard deviation with respect to transverse measures of the maxilla and the mandible was a 6mm discrepancy for 4: Ratio of patients with posterior crossbite. Pernicious oral habits may be predisposing factors for malocclusions which, unfortunately, are present in the child population at an early age, causing substantial alterations in the second dentition and proving to be a real public health problem.

In terms of gender, prevalence was similar for both habits and malocclusions. Bayardo and Barrios 34 reported that the female sex was predominant in their studies, as well as Alonso, 6 stating that malocclusions were more prevalent in girls.

However, Bosnjak 30 found that the boys showed more habits than girls, and observed trends toward a certain gender. In general, the prevalence of oral habits according to gender in this study behaved similar for both males and females. In relation to age, subjects between the ages of 6 and 11 years showed a higher prevalence of pernicious oral habits as well as of malocclusions.

Similar results were found in studies conducted in Mexico, Brazil, Nigeria, the United State 35 and Spain, which indicates that oral habits and their implications are more notorious and aggressive during the mixed dentition. Therefore, it has been established that the oral habits with higher prevalence are: In terms of prevalence of malocclusions, the ones with the highest observed prevalence were the following: In regard to the relationship of terminal planes primary dentitionthe most prevalent was the mesial step with The study was carried out in a population of Mexican children of Nezahualcoyotl City, a municipality adjacent to the location in which the present study was carried out.

The study performed by Bayardo13 found a These results are in agreement with the data obtained from this study. The most prevalent pernicious habits in the studied population were lingual interposition and thumb suction, which caused anterior open bite. Mouth breathing was found to have a relation to posterior cross bite. Thus, it is important to know the prevalence of pernicious oral habits associated with certain malocclusions that develop in early ages in order to prevent, intercept or correct during growth.

In addition, it should be borne in mind that in the child population there is an increased susceptibility to develop these anomalies so preventive measures should be adopted such as periodic clinic exams, timely diagnosis, early treatment and prevent the development of more severe and costly problems. It is also important to mention that this type of anomalies should be treated in a multidisciplinary manner.

Inicio Revista Mexicana de Ortodoncia Prevalence of malocclusions associated with pernicious oral habits in a Mexican Prevalence of malocclusions associated with pernicious oral habits in a Mexican sample. Under a Creative Commons license. Genetic and environmental risk factors such as abnormal oral habits are of vital importance to consider its frequency, duration and intensity in order to avoid creating specific changes in the occlusion. Objective To determine the prevalence of malocclusions and its association with risk factors, such as pernicious oral habits in a 2 to year-old child population who requested dental care in the Venustiano Carranza peripheral clinic of the UNAM.

Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in children. The statistical package SPSS 15 was used.